A study in the 1980s revealed that over 90% of questions posed by teachers prompted factual recall only.
Dains, D. (1986). Are teachers asking the right questions? Education 1, (4) 368–374.
Another study of that period revealed a figure of 75-80%.
Dillon, J. T. (1988). Questioning and teaching: A manual of practice. New York: Teachers College Press.
When teachers increase the time allowance for students to think before they reply to questions, responses become longer and reach a higher cognitive level. Similar benefits occur when teachers also wait a few seconds after students have answered, plus other students become more participative.
Rowe, M. B. (1974). Wait-time and rewards in instructional variables, their influence on language, logic, and fate control: Part one—Wait time. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 11, 81-94.
Rowe, M. B. (1986). Wait-time: Slowing down may be a way of speeding up! Journal of Teacher Education, 37(1), 43-48.
Teachers have a tendency to echo student answers; when they do not do so other students are more attentive to their peers’ responses.
Craig, J. & Cairo, L. (2005). Assessing the relationship between Questioning and Understanding to Improve Learning and Thinking (QUILT) and student achievement in mathematics: A pilot study. Appalachia Educational Laboratory (AEL).
During discussions, thought-provoking statements are viable alternatives to questions in order to stimulate student participation.
Wilen, W.W. (1991). Questioning skills, for teachers. National Education Association of the United States.
Individual, pair or small group interviews conducted by teachers reveal students’ awareness and understanding and provide an opportunity for teachers to notice and develop their questioning competency.
Moyer, P. & Milewicz, E. (2002). Learning to question: Categories of questioning used by preservice teachers during diagnostic mathematics interviews. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 5, 293–315.
I have attached a lesson observation form based upon the above research findings: