In this entry, I will demonstrate the art of concept checking, i.e. using questions to elicit whether students have understood a difficult concept, or are able to distinguish commonly confused concepts.
Concept checking is a tried and tested technique in teaching grammar and vocabulary. Personally, I learnt the technique when I was training to become a TESOL practitioner. There is a good description of concept checking for language teaching at http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/checking-understanding
However, in this entry I would like to show how concept checking can be used for other subject teaching. In every subject there will be terminology that is hard to grasp or is easily confused with a related concept. For instance, how about “Internet” and “World Wide Web”? In everyday conversation they are used interchangeably but they are not the same.
My example concepts are ‘plagiarism’ and ‘copyright infringement’. These two concepts are often confused or conflated no matter how clearly they are presented. On more than one occasion I have been tasked to help university students and lecturers comprehend the difference between them.
Step 1: Present the concept(s) as clearly as possible
“Plagiarism occurs when someone tries to pass off another person’s work or ideas as their own without acknowledgement.” http://edc.polyu.edu.hk/PSP/teacher.htm
“Copyright infringement occurs when someone copies, publishes or distributes a piece of writing, music, picture or other work of authorship without permission.” http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/copyright
Step 2: Pose concept checking questions
What kind of offence is plagiarism – moral or legal? (moral)
What kind of offence is copyright infringement – moral or legal? (legal)
Who carries out punishment for plagiarism? (higher education institutions / the academic community)
Who carries out punishment for copyright infringement? (courts of law)
How can plagiarism be avoided? (acknowledge sources)
How can copyright infringement be avoided? (seek permission or pay)
Is there any flexibility in plagiarism rules? (No)
Is there any flexibility in copyright law? (Yes)
Reasons for concept checking
- It intercepts and corrects misconceptions at an early stage, prior to application of knowledge and assessment.
- It informs decisions whether to re-teach the concepts in another way or continue with, e.g., additional input.
- It is a tool for formative assessment.
- It can improve learning.
- It is a diagnostic tool for differentiation by readiness.
- It is a tool in inquiry-based learning and other inductive approaches.
- It is a model of effective study skills.