Task 1: Before reading this article, search for The Flipped Learning Toolkit on YouTube. Watch the first video entitled Rethinking Space and Time. Answer the following questions:
What is meant by “space”? What is meant by “time”? (Suggested answers are at the end of this entry.)
In this article, the Flipped Learning pedagogical approach will be clarified and evaluated for its advantages and limitations according to available empirical evidence and through critical reflection upon its underlying assumptions. The author aims to show that Flipped Learning is neither revolutionary nor a universal remedy for under-performance in study environments. It does not constitute a method or approach but merely a template or framework for arranging work before and during face-to-face lessons. However, Flipped Learning does have several strengths and, in combination with more recently available learning technologies and complimentary approaches, represents one of many legitimate options for well-informed educators. This blog entry then goes on to provide examples of good practice and practical suggestions for educators who opt to experiment with Flipped Learning in their school or university.
|“school work at home, homework at school”|
What is Flipped Learning?
This has been explained elsewhere so I will be concise. The simple definition provided above is memorable but a more precise one has been provided by the Flipped Learning Network, an online association of Flipped Learning practitioners:
“Flipped learning is a pedagogical approach in which direct instruction moves from the group learning space to the individual learning space, and the resulting group space is transformed into a dynamic, interactive learning environment where the educator guides [my emphasis] students as they apply concepts and engage creatively in the subject matter.”
In many descriptions of this approach, a caricature contrast is drawn between the ‘Traditional Classroom’ where the teacher acts as a ‘Sage on the Stage’ and the ‘Flipped Classroom’ where the teacher is a ‘Guide on the Side”. The sage is associated with transmission of knowledge, passive learning and content-coverage, in other words direct instruction. The guide is associated with learner collaboration, active learning and learning by discovery. The guide’s teaching style is underpinned by constructivist learning theory.
For such a major role shift to occur, homework tasks, which traditionally have been employed to consolidate knowledge acquired during face-to-face lessons, become the main classroom activity. Conversely, the input of new knowledge, instead of being the major focus of lessons, is designated for pre-class study.
However, students are not left to pre-study in isolation without support. For this pre-class phase, the teacher supplies a package of self-study materials to learners, typically short video presentations of key concepts. Students watch these videos at home and complete self-checking quizzes until they believe they comprehend. This means that valuable face-to-face time with the teacher can be devoted to a variety of activities that allow pupils to apply the ideas and extend their knowledge through, for example, case studies, interactive labs, project work or collaborative problem-solving. The teacher is present to monitor, provide guidance and feedback on tasks that activate higher order thinking skills.
Below are two illustrations of Flipped Learning, the first portraying the process and the second showing how it relates to Bloom’s Taxonomy.
Source: Williams, B. (2013). How I flipped my classroom. NNNC Conference, Norfolk, NE.
Flipped Learning is thus intended to be a sub-category of blended learning, i.e. partially face-to-face and partially online. With the advent of mobile devices such as tablets and smartphones, learners may complete their pre-class work at a time and location that is convenient for them, and will hopefully begin to adopt a more opportunistic learning habit as a consequence.
Origins of Flipped Learning
Some educators react that Flipped Learning is nothing new. For instance, a literature teacher once commented to this author that he routinely asks his students to prepare for class by reading a chapter of the set text and answering surface level comprehension questions. Preliminary homework is also a feature of the method called ‘Team-based Learning’ (TBL) that was devised by Michaelsen, Knight and Fink (2004). (However, TBL in my view is unethical in that students are tested and graded on their preparatory studies with insufficient input and support from their teachers.)
Perhaps though, Mastery Learning is the true precursor of Flipped Learning. Diagnostic pre-assessment and high quality group-based instruction are also features of this method devised by Bloom (1971). Mastery Learning was researched more rigorously than many other educational methods and results in terms of impact on learning were impressive. However, in the 1970s and 1980s there were practical hurdles to overcome when it came to implementing Mastery Learning. At the time it was criticized for being labour-intensive for teachers and unworkable with large classes of students.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) took a revolutionary step in 2001 by opening its huge archive of online lecture recordings to the general public. This spurred interest in free online learning and has led to the development of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) which are accessible through gateway websites such as Udacity, Coursera, edX and FutureLearn.
In 2007, Bergmann and Sams reported on their pedagogical experimentation in a US high school environment and have since become the authors of two popular books about Flipped Learning (see references). They have described their experiences in detail, focusing on the impact on individual learners. Their view of Flipped Learning is interesting in that they regard it as a catalyst for shifting from a teacher-centred to a student-centred pedagogical paradigm. I would argue that there is a time and place when teacher-centredness is advantageous and that the real goal is learning-centredness. (Please see my tongue-in-cheek entry on Learning-Based Learning for more about my perspective.)
At the time of writing, Flipped Learning remains a popular topic in education. There is particularly strong interest in Flipped Learning in the university sector, where educators are more likely to be required to deliver lengthy lectures and feel a sense of dissatisfaction with the format. Instead of making lectures interactive though, which is a perfectly viable option, they have decided to switch to a method that relegates lectures to homework.
Advantages and disadvantages of Flipped Learning
|1. Students are able to watch short preparatory video lectures at their own pace and convenience.||1. Video presentations lack the fidelity and subtleties of face-to-face lessons. Also, some learners will not watch the videos before lessons. The traditional lecture format and transmission model of learning are likely to be maintained.|
|2. Teachers are present when students attempt to apply concepts, and can monitor and intervene as and when necessary to support learners.||2. Teachers are not present when students attempt to understand concepts and they cannot immediately react to students’ misconceptions.|
|3. Short video lectures can be accompanied by self-checking quizzes. Students can attempt the quizzes as frequently as they wish.||3. If students give incorrect answers to self-checking quizzes, they may not understand why they are wrong.|
|4. Students may work at their own pace through the video lectures and accompanying self-checking exercises. This is differentiation according to learning rates.||4. Students are typically provided with only one path to learning the key concepts, i.e. via the short video lectures. This is not differentiation according to modalities.*|
|5. In Flipped Learning, there is a logical progression from the comprehension of concepts and rules to their application.||5. Flipped Learning assumes that learning should be deductive in nature. Sometimes, however, it is valuable for learners to discover concepts and rules by looking for patterns in examples.|
|6. In order to create video lectures, there are many simple-to-use applications available nowadays.||6. IT skills and facilities vary considerably according to different learning environments. Teachers must ensure that all students have access to the video lectures outside the classroom.|
|7. In this method, there is a strong emphasis on mastering content knowledge.||7. It is not as convincing that this method could help learners to master procedural knowledge, i.e. skills.|
|8. Lectures are replaced by self-study so that students come to class armed with pre-requisite knowledge to explore concepts more deeply.||8. The role of seminars, tutorials and lab classes to explore concepts more fully and apply knowledge seems|
to have been forgotten.
*Of course, teachers do not need to limit the type of pre-lesson study materials to video lectures. They could also indicate relevant pages of textbooks or provide links to pertinent websites.
Compensating for the disadvantages of Flipped Learning
The Flipped Learning Network (http://flippedlearning.org/domain/46) claims that adherence to four principles is conducive to the quality of instruction.
- Flexible learning environment
- Spaces and time frames that permit students to interact and reflect on their learning
- Continual monitoring of students to make adjustments as appropriate
- Provision of alternative ways to learn content and demonstrate mastery
- Learning culture
- Opportunities to engage in meaningful, student-centred activities
- Activities that are accessible to all learners thanks to scaffolding, differentiation and feedback
- Intentional content
- Highlighting of key concepts in direct instruction
- Creation and/or curation of relevant content, e.g. videos
- Differentiation to make content accessible to all learners
- Professional educator
- Availability to all students
- Conductor of formative assessment
- Collaboration with other educators in the spirit of ongoing development
The author considers these as general principles of good teaching and not specific to Flipped Learning. A more advisable approach would be an eclectic one, utilising methods as and when they are appropriate to the learning situation. There is no need to place Flipped Learning on a pedestal and use it whatever learning situation is encountered.
Task 2: Go back The Flipped Learning Toolkit on YouTube. Watch the second video entitled Overcoming Common Hurdles and complete the following task:
List three solutions to problems implementing Flipped Learning. (Answers are at the end of this guide.)
Resources for Flipped Learning
Task 3: Return to The Flipped Learning Toolkit on YouTube. Watch the fifth video entitled Which Tech Tools Are Right for You? and complete the following task:
List three types of technology that are needed for Flipped Learning. (Answers are at the end of this guide.)
Learning Management Systems (LMSs) aka Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) are secure, help teachers to organise content, provide numerous tools including online quiz creation and have the capability to track student progress. Universities usually subscribe to an LMS but there are also open-source options. Here are three suggestions:
- Blackboard Learn – http://www.blackboard.com/Platforms/Learn/Overview.aspx
- Moodle – https://moodle.org/
- Sakai – https://sakaiproject.org/
Software applications to produce videos are plentiful but here are three unusual and interesting ones:
- Educreations – https://www.educreations.com/
- PowToon – http://www.powtoon.com/
- Screencast-o-matic – http://www.screencast-o-matic.com/
Teachers will need somewhere to store videos. Of course, YouTube is an option but here are three alternative free online hosting depositories:
- TeacherTube – http://www.teachertube.com/
- Screencast – https://www.screencast.com/
- Vimeo – https://vimeo.com/
Final thoughts on Flipped Learning
I am going to be so bold as to make an analogy, and I hope it is a close one, between Flipped Learning and a template for writing a cover letter. If I adhered to a recommended cover letter template and were shortlisted for interview, I would not conclude that it was the cover letter template alone that had brought me success. There was also the content, the paragraphing, the skillful use of language, application of accurate and complex grammatical structures, appropriate vocabulary, etc. So, why, in judging the outcomes of Flipped Learning, is it just this “template” that is considered the sole factor. Teaching skills and content, the ability of the instructor to motivate learners, positive interactions with and between learners, these are factors that make the real difference between successful and not-so-successful courses. Flipped Learning is just a template or framework to be used or discarded at the discretion of well-informed and trained teachers.
Bergmann, J. & Sams, A. (2012). Flip your classroom: Reach every student in every class every day. International Society for Technology in Education.
Bergmann, J. & Sams, A. (2014). Flipped learning: Gateway to student engagement. International Society for Technology in Education.
Bloom, B. S. (1971). Mastery learning. In J. H. Block (Ed.), Mastery learning: Theory and practice (pp. 47–63). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Bretzmann, J. (2013). Flipping 2.0: Practical strategies for flipping your class. Bretzmann Group LLC.
Michaelsen, L. K., Knight, A.B., & Fink, L.D. (2004). Team-based-learning: A transformative use of small groups in college teaching. Stylus Publishing.
Suggested answers to tasks
Task 1: “Space” = classroom layout that is suitable for interactive group work ; “Time” = best use of face-to-face classroom time if concepts have already been learnt before the lesson.
Task 2: i) Provide flashdrives or DVDs to students who do not have Internet access at home;
- ii) Keep videos short so that students can concentrate optimally;
iii) Do not worry about creating perfect videos.
Task 3: i) Video cameras (even a smartphone’s)
- ii) Screencasting programmes
iii) Whiteboarding apps for tablets